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Monasticism is a religious way of life wherein adherents withdraw from society and opt for seclusion in search of spiritual enlightenment.
In its institutionalised form, the practice originated in fourth century Egypt, where many followers of the fast-spreading Christianity were enticed by the endless deserts, which provided opportune environments for isolated, or at least semi-isolated, religious communities. It is unique, however, in that it is perhaps the oldest archaeologically attested monastic site, not only in Egypt, but in the world.
Based on stratigraphy, radiocarbon analysis, ceramic and glass assemblages and coins, the foundation date of the earliest stage of this federation of hermitages can be situated around the first half of the fourth century, making it the oldest preserved Christian monastic site that has so-far been dated with certainty.
The stratigrafy dating has seen three seasons of excavation directed by Prof. Despite the current state of the world in light of Covid, the most recent of the three excavation seasons was December Located some km south-west of Cairo in the Baḥariya Oasis, the site consists of six sectors constructed predominantly of basalt blocks and mud.
Also included are a number of buildings which are dug partially, or completely, in the bed-rock. The layout of the buildings in each of these sectors, as well as the stratigrafy dating techniques employed, all of which include food preparation areas and living quarters, indicate that GQA operated as an atypical laura, that is, a semi-independent type of monastic setting comprising clusters of living spaces for monks.
Apasă pentru a vedea definiția originală «stratigraphy» în dicționarul Engleză dictionary.
The closest Roman period archaeological sites are between 2. It is this isolation, as well as the organisation of the internal areas of each sector, the presence of three churches, and countless graffiti and dipinti on the walls in sectors 1 and 6, which indicate the monastic nature of the community that lived here.
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In addition, the season brought to light a number of Greek ostraca which make reference to monks. The only archaeological or architectural parallel found so far is in the earliest structures of Kellia, located in the Nitrian Desert, the remnants of which have since disappeared.
The edges of Egypt are at the centre of the archaeology of the earliest Egyptian monasticism. Victor Ghica.
Four of the six buildings complexes that compose the site were found in an exceptional state of preservation, with all the walls intact, several roofs discovered in situ during the excavations and two rooms built stratigrafy dating two floors.
Although each of the sectors of GQA have seen destruction and vandalism, most of the structures and features are untouched, providing a wealth of information. It was revealed that a fifth room was similarly covered, but these texts are hidden beneath an additional layer of plaster. The removal of a limited amount of this plaster dating florida that these texts are also of a religious nature.
Previous recent publications have presented information and analyses concerning the topography of the site and the various types of artefacts Morintz, Kogălniceanu ; Kogălniceanu a; Mărgărit ; Kogălniceanu, Haită ; Kogălniceanu et alii This paper focuses on a specific archaeological feature, namely the Skull Complex. Material and method The Skull Complex was only mentioned once, in an annual excavation report, being described briefly and accompanied by mediocre quality photography due to the 1 3.
Most of this top-coat remains in situ, meaning the texts will stay protected from the elements and thus preserved until they can be studied properly at a later date. The limited ceramic from this sector studied in the previous seasons dates from the fifth and early sixth centuries.
Numerous organic samples were taken in order to stratigrafy dating understand the chronology of the construction phases. The fourth-century date mentioned derives for the time being from GQA1, the largest sector of the site, which saw five phases of construction.
Based on stratigraphy, stratigrafy dating analysis, ceramic and glass assemblages and two coins, the foundation date of the sector can be situated in the mid-fourth, or even in the first half of the fourth century, making it the oldest preserved Christian monastic site that has been dated with certainty.
Additional dating is underway to establish a more secure chronology of the sector, but so far, the available data indicates that this is the oldest preserved monastic site. Most of the ceramic from GQA dates from the end of forth-early fifth century to the early sixth century, indicating that this was likely the peak of activity, at least in the sectors GQA1, 2, 3 and 6, while traces of later occupation, dating from the seventh to eighth centuries, have also been identified in GQA1, 2 and 6, probably correlating with the pastoralist re-occupation of the site.
While the fourth century foundation date of GQA1 is just one of stratigrafy dating remarkable features of this site, it is perhaps the most important, opening new perspectives for the study stratigrafy dating the earliest stages of the monastic movement.
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