The modern city that overlaps it, developed since the 19 century and currently about ca. This historical fact is not rightly cultivated, as we might expect, though speed dating amsterdam hoger opgeleiden fame of Tomis does somehow ring a bell in our national collective memory.
Some remains of the ancient city have been uncovered, over the past century, in isolated and more or less small areas. All the related documentations are part of an exploded and rather incomplete puzzle, therefore the overall mental image of the ancient city is available to very few of us. In addition, most of the plans published so far have some degree of technical issues.
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Scientific research of archaeological remains must be heartbeat dating based on very precise topographical data, even on a large scale.
This paper presents the first steps of a possible solution towards integrating the various documentations available for Tomis on a georeferenced base, using digital means.
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Our purpose, in this first phase, is to put together the exploded puzzle. Further phases should cover on site topographical measurements in order to verify the existing data of the puzzle and, eventually, we hope future research will contribute towards its possible completion. Keywords: ancient city, historical centre, archaeology, georeferenced data, digital data integration. Founded by Greek colonists from Milet, probably in the sixth century BC, the evolution of the city-port stretched, with ups and downs, along ca.
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Under the Roman rule, it was one of the most important urban centres of the Western Black Sea Coast and the capital of Scythia, a Late Roman border province. Although we could distinguish Constanța as having some of the oldest urban roots attested in Romania, they are little explored and valued compared to their cultural and economic potential.
The overall goal of the project is to integrate the available relevant data concerning the urban configurations of Scythia. In conectați întâlnirea, the city of Tomis — ultimately, the largest and most important of them — could easily be seen as compromised by the lack of archaeological evidence and perspective in this direction. Nevertheless, as dating tools antique capital of Scythia, Tomis must be a study case of our project, despite its poorly known urban configuration.
That meant using the optimal technologies dating tools antique cover the needs, the best materials and techniques available and the most brilliant minds to conceive and supervise the good implementation.
Chapter 1 History of the Research
Some of these have already been confirmed for Tomis. In this general case — of past cities covered by present ones, the concern in the matter of antique urbanism can be seen two folded.
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First, in order to benefit in a commonly accepted decent way from our urban patrimonial values , we must — as much as possible — preserve them. Moreover, that should be a full- time job.
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Second, we should always have in mind the previous urban experience. We must not forget that the Americans built their own pieces of Europe in order to have one. Can we blame them? For this purpose, we need some technical instruments in order to enables us managing all possible documentation.
Our options went in two different directions, having in mind the intention to unify them at norvegian american dating site point in the future.
The first main instrument is a digital database. Its dating tools antique is to gather written and graphic references on the subject. The second main instrument is a georeferenced digital environment that helps us to collect topographic data.
The use of these tools is not intended dating tools antique for this short-term research dating tools antique that is, in our vision, only the 'experimental phase'. Since the subject of our study can never be consumed at least for as long as archaeological excavations occur in the Roman sites of Dobrogea, the instruments mentioned above are conceived to be used on a long term and for the benefit of a larger research community.
If some outstanding results of using the digital database as a research instrument for this project are expected in a longer time, the results of using the georeferenced digital environment can be much easier publicly rendered, as they are certainly — at least apparently — less technical dating tools antique much more spectacular.
To achieve a digital restitution of an antique site, an ideal scenario covers multiple data type integration: antique sources, historical maps, photographic data, archaeological research dating tools antique, historical studies on urban related themes etc.
In the past years we assist an impressive boom of national or international projects dealing with 2D but mostly 3D digital applied technologies to architectural heritage, numerous technological research studies for improving this direction, dedicated software and hardware projects etc.
As expected, the community involved gathers not only historians and architects, but also many different specialists in engineering, geophysics, computing etc. Their activity is reflected in a great number of international conferences and workshops and, most salutary, in a large amount of online free documentation .
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Archaeological sites data management is among the main subjects of this community and, so far, important progresses have already been made in order to ease and enhance the research activity.
Most of the information we have come from archaeological research, although we owe some significant clues and solid data concerning crucial aspects of the antique urban infrastructure to other specialists, many of them engineers. Although it has rarely been the object of systematic archaeological investigations, the city of Tomis has an important list of bibliographical references concerning the urban and architectural remains. Still, some preliminary remarks should be made concerning the urban infrastructure, the city's defensive wall system and the inland street network.
Furthermore, the water system that provided Tomis with drinking water during Antiquity makes the subject dating tools antique the first — and the single one, by now — monographic study dedicated to the Scythian capital. Based on several published studies, archive studies, documents and manuscripts, Gheorghe Papuc gives us an insight covering the remains discovered until now of the city's water system.
Tomis - available data, urban infrastructure. B right : the route of the reconstituted antique coastline bold line compared to the present coastline dashed lineby Constantin Scarlat .
Antique Layers of Tomis
No scaling reference and approximately North orientation for both illustrations. The various dedicated studies concerning the water supply of Tomis have dealt all the specific related problems, such as water sources, transportation, storage and distribution.
If the technology used for collecting and transporting water was rather usual ceramic tubes and walled canalsthe storage and local distribution water system of Tomis is considered to be a rarity throughout the whole Roman Empire. It consists of underground galleries that connected a network of shafts with the antique ground level of the city.
So far, there were investigated about meters of underground galleries Fig. The second urban infrastructure issue in our discussion is the land on which the antique city was built.
It consists basically of two types of soil: limestone and loess. It is a known fact that the action of the sea currents causes permanent erosion against the loess soil, as it is also commonly accepted that the sea level has raised since Antiquity — with ca.
Why is it so important to know the size of the antique city? It is obvious that the surface has some influence in the research and analysis of a city, since it can be an important criterion for establishing various hierarchies or for estimating number of inhabitants, a series of urban indicators etc.
(PDF) Antique Layers of Tomis | Alexandra Teodor - bikechic.ro
There has been offered a possible answer, so far not very quoted by scholars dealing with the topography of Tomis. Constantin Scarlat, member of the Dating tools antique Military Marine and a passionate for underwater archaeology, published, inthe results of his diving expeditions around the shores of Tomis Fig.
His mission was to identify the antique shore-line and to note all underwater possible antique remains that he could observe. The plans are presented here only for comparative purpose, at approximately the same scale and same North orientation.
The blue line in all plans represents Ferdinand Blvd. Only one plan had a scaling reference 1 and only two of them have the same base- plan 3 and 5, same author. In order to establish some more precise topographic setting of the walls, from the available data we can partially use these plans for a general orientation, but also detail plans of the archaeological reports concerning the city walls, information provided by the ortophoto and, most desirable, topographic measurements on site.
Since last option is yet unavailable to us, we shall only use the rest of them. Though it is a major aspect when discussing urban topography, we have only few relevant data about the street network of Tomis.
The first one served for collecting and exporting the georeferenced data of the site, the second for importing the georeferenced data into AutoCAD  and the last for the integration of all further topographic documentation. The georeferenced data Stereo 70 projection system is an orthophotographic  layer that represents the scale reference for all the further integrated data, also very useful for a better orientation on the site.
It is the photographic layer visible in figures The illustration presented in the Results section keeps the original cardinal orientation of the georefenced data, therefore indicating the North direction was no longer necessary.
For a better reading of the results, some of the raster data were transformed into vector.
For scaling the different plans according to the georeferenced data we used mostly the actual street network, as it is the common archaeological reports' reference element.
In order to approximately rectify the errors coming from all the drawings we used as scale reference the georeferenced data the ortophoto. Dating tools antique some of the available documentation may present visible errors, we believe this method can allow some pertinent global dating tools antique considerations over the results.
Furthermore, sometimes these more or less 'sketchy' documentations are all we have left for some of the researched areas of the city, so using them cannot be worse than not using them at all. As Fig. The red squares indicate the correspondent zoom-in details presented in Fig.
The northern water provision gallery segment main route yellow has a ca. Although Scarlat's drawing is probably rather a rough approximation of what he saw underwater — as it proved to have serious errors of representing the course of the actual shore — the results of his research suggest a surface of the antique city much larger than generally postulated by literature ca.
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Depending on the scaling interpretation of the sketch, we can argue for minimum ca. However, we must notice that ca. It seems acceptable that the size of ancient Tomis could be considered to be somewhere between the extreme values mentioned, and this is expectable to have baptist southern online dating important effect on the antique city's surface based estimations and classifications launched so far.