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Section IV. In addition, civil associations wishing to perform religious functions may organize under a separate provision of the law. There were continued reports of the slow pace of restitution of confiscated properties, especially to the Greek Catholic Church and the Jewish community. During the year, the government rejected restitution claims for confiscated religious properties dating online în malawi approved 48, compared with claims rejected and 52 approved in ; it approved no claims for the Greek Catholic Church.
Minority religious groups continued to state that national and local governments gave preference to the ROC, and they reported incidents of government discrimination against them, including exclusive ROC representation at many government-sponsored events. In May a town with an ethnic Romanian majority erected a monument and Orthodox-style crosses in the Valea Uzului war cemetery, sparking protests by a neighboring, majority-Catholic town with an ethnic Hungarian majority.
Security forces deployed at a counterprotest in June to keep the two sides apart. Minority religious groups continued to report harassment of their congregations by ROC priests and adherents, including verbal harassment, along with the blocking of their access to cemeteries. In April media reported vandalism at a Jewish cemetery in the town of Husi, where individuals destroyed dozens of headstones.
The president of the Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania stated the vandalism was the culmination of a series of anti-Semitic acts in the town; no suspects were detained. Some media outlets continued to depict largely Muslim migrants as a threat because of their religion. In March the news site evz. On February 26, the National Anti-Discrimination Council released the results of a survey showing a majority of Romanians expressed high levels of distrust towards Muslims 68 percentJews 46 percentand other religious minorities 58 percent.
A European Commission EC Eurobarometer survey published in January reported 6 percent of respondents believed anti-Semitism was a problem in the country, and 67 percent did not.
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According to the findings of a separate EC study on perceptions of discrimination published in September, 43 percent of respondents believed discrimination on the basis of religion or belief was widespread in Romania, while 51 percent said it was rare. The U. Ambassador at Large for Religious Freedom met with government officials to discuss anti-Semitism, Holocaust remembrance issues, and the general position of the Orthodox Church in the country.
In meetings with the general secretary of the government, U. Embassy officials facilitated meetings between the World Jewish Restitution Organization WJRO and government officials to help speed the processes of property restitution and pensions for Holocaust survivors. The Ambassador participated in Holocaust commemorations and spoke out against religious intolerance in the country.
Using its Facebook page, the embassy emphasized respect for religious freedom and condemned anti-Semitic incidents. Section I. Religious Demography The U. According to a census by the government, ROC adherents constitute According to the census, there are approximatelyGreek Catholics; however, Greek Catholics estimate their numbers atAtheists and nonbelievers represent less than 1 percent of the population.
Of the 64, Muslims accounted dating bandcamp in the census, 43, live in the southeast near Constanta.
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Most Greek Catholics reside in Transylvania. Protestants of various denominations and Roman Catholics reside primarily in Transylvania. Orthodox and Greek Catholic ethnic Ukrainians live mostly in the north. Orthodox ethnic Serbs are primarily in Banat.
Members of the Armenian Apostolic Church are concentrated in Moldavia and the south. Section II. Status of Government Respect for Religious Freedom Legal Framework The constitution prohibits restricting freedom of thought, opinion, conscience, or religious beliefs, as well as forcing individuals to espouse a religious belief contrary to their convictions.
The constitution states religious denominations shall be autonomous and enjoy state support, including the facilitation of religious assistance in the army, hospitals, penitentiaries, retirement homes, and orphanages.
The law forbids public authorities or private legal entities from asking individuals to specify their religion, with the exception of the census. Organizations in the top two tiers are legal entities, while religious groups are not. Civil associations established under separate provisions of the law governing associations and foundations may also engage in religious activities and have the status of legal entities.
Улицы Диаспара купались в свете, который после сияния машинного города казался бледным и тусклым. Элвин едва замечал окружающее; он пренебрегал как знакомой красотой проплывавших мимо огромных башен, так и любопытными взорами сограждан. Странно, думал он, как все, случившееся с ним до сих пор вело к этому мигу.
For additional organizations to obtain recognition as religious denominations, the law specifies they must demonstrate 12 years of continuous activity beginning in A religious association is then eligible to apply for the status of religious denomination if it has a membership of at least 0.
The law defines a religious association as an organization of at least citizens who share and practice the same faith and has attained legal status through registration with the Registry of Religious Associations in the office of the clerk of the court where the main branch of the association is located. To operate as religious associations, organizations also require approval from the National Secretariat for Religious Denominations, which is under the authority of the Office of the Prime Minister.
The law defines a religious group as a group of individuals sharing the same beliefs. Religious groups do not have to register to practice their religion and do not need approval from the national secretariat to operate. Civil associations engaged in religious activities function like secular associations and foundations; however, they do not receive the dating prin internet benefits as religious denominations or religious associations.
These associations do not require approval from the National Secretariat for Religious Denominations to operate. Their registration falls under the provisions of law governing the establishment of foundations, associations, and nongovernmental organizations NGOswhich require a minimum membership of three individuals. Religious denominations are eligible for state viteza forumului dating and other support.
They have the right to teach religion classes in public schools, receive government funds to build places of worship, partially pay clergy salaries with state funds, broadcast religious programming on radio and television, and apply for broadcasting licenses for their own stations.
Religious groups do not receive either government funding or tax exemptions. Dating online în malawi religious denominations and religious associations may own or rent property, publish or import religious literature, proselytize, establish and operate schools or hospitals, own cemeteries, and receive tax exemptions on income and buildings used for religious, educational, or other social purposes. Religious groups have no legal status to engage in such activities; however, they may practice their religious beliefs, including in public.
Civil associations engaged in religious activities may engage in religious worship and own cemeteries. While they do not receive the same tax exemptions or other benefits granted to religious denominations and religious associations, they may receive the tax advantages and other benefits accruing to civil associations and foundations. Legal provisions allow local authorities to fund places of worship and theological dating online în malawi belonging to religious denominations, including providing funding for staff salaries and building maintenance, renovation, and conservation or construction of places of worship.
No similar provisions exist for religious associations or other associations engaged in religious activities; however, these associations may receive funding through legal provisions for civil associations and foundations.
The law allows all types of religious organizations to bury their dead in cemeteries belonging to other religious organizations, dating online în malawi the exception of cemeteries belonging to local Jewish and Muslim communities.
By law, non-Muslims and non-Jews are not entitled to be buried in Jewish or Muslim cemeteries. Public cemeteries must have separate sections for each religious denomination if requested by the denominations operating in the locality.
The law allows clergy from recognized religious denominations to minister to military personnel. Under various other arrangements, clergy of recognized religious denominations, and in some cases religious associations, may enter hospitals, orphanages, and retirement homes to undertake religious activities. Religious denominations and religious associations may undertake activities in penitentiaries, subject to approval by the director of the detention facility.
The law provides for the restitution of religious properties confiscated between andduring World War II WWII and the ensuing communist regime, as long as the properties are in the possession of the state. The law does not address the general return of properties currently used as places of worship by another religious group. A separate statute on the reinstatement of the Greek Catholic Church regulates the restitution of properties to the Church from the ROC.
The law establishes a points system of compensation in cases where in-kind restitution is not possible. The NCREC also validates compensation decisions of other local or central authorities, including those of the Special Restitution Commission SRCwhich decides on restitution claims filed by religious denominations and national minorities.
The law establishes a day deadline by which claimants must submit additional evidence in their cases at the specific request of the entity in charge of resolving their restitution claim. If a claimant does not meet the deadline, the administrative authority may reject the case.
The authority may extend the deadline by an additional days if the claimants prove they made a concerted effort to obtain the evidence, usually in the possession of other state authorities, but were unable to do so. The law designates the present-day Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania as the legitimate inheritor of forfeited communal Jewish property and accords priority to private claims by Holocaust survivors.
The law does not address heirless or unclaimed property left by Holocaust victims. Romanian and foreign citizens who were persecuted based on ethnic criteria between and are entitled to a monthly pension. The amount of the pension varies, depending on the type and length of dating online în malawi endured.
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The pension is available to survivors and their families who are no longer Romanian citizens, thus entitling U. A law that went into effect in July allows Holocaust survivors residing in foreign countries and are eligible for compensation in Romania to prove they were victims of racial and ethnic dating online în malawi based on official documents released by institutions of the country of residence.
The law also exempts Holocaust survivors residing in foreign countries from having to physically submit their applications for compensation at the pension offices in the country and allows them to use other means of communication to apply. By law, religious education in schools is optional in both public and private schools. Each of the 18 legally recognized religious denominations is entitled to offer religion classes, based on its own religious teachings, in schools.
A denomination may offer classes regardless of the number of students adhering to dating online în malawi denomination in a school. Although a student normally takes a school course based on the religious teachings of the denomination to which the student belongs, it is also possible for a student to take a religion course offered by his or her denomination outside the school system and bring a certificate from the denomination to receive academic credit. Religion teachers in public schools are government employees, but each religious denomination approves the appointment and retention of the teachers of its religion classes.
Romania - United States Department of State
The law forbids proselytizing in public and private schools. If teachers proselytize, the school management determines the appropriate punishment, based on the conclusions of an internal committee.
The law bans discrimination on religious grounds in all areas of public life. It also bans religious defamation and stirring conflict on religious grounds, as well as public offenses against religious symbols. According to amendments to a law that went into effect in April, deceased adherents of Judaism are exempted from autopsy upon the request of their families or the Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania and if law enforcement determines there are no suspicious circumstances surrounding their death.
The previous version of the law did not allow for such an exemption. By law, anti-Semitism is defined as a perception of Jews expressed in the form of anti-Jewish hatred, as well as speech and physical acts motivated by hatred that target Jews, non-Jews or their belongings, Jewish community institutions, or Jewish places of worship.
Criminal liability is waived dating online în malawi the person involved in establishing such an organization informs authorities before the dating online în malawi begins its activity; penalties are halved if the individual helps authorities with the criminal investigation.
Legislation also makes manufacturing, selling, distributing, owning with intent to distribute, and using racist, fascist, xenophobic, and Legionnaire symbols illegal. Publicly promoting persons convicted of genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes may incur fines and prison terms ranging from dating online în malawi months to three years and from six months to five dating online în malawi if done online.
The same penalties apply to publicly promoting anti-Semitic, fascist, Legionnaire, racist, or xenophobic ideas, worldviews, or doctrines.
2019 Report on International Religious Freedom: Romania
The law allows religious workers from legally recognized religious organizations to enter and remain in the country under an extended-stay visa.
Visa applicants must receive approval by the State Secretariat for Religious Affairs and submit evidence they represent religious organizations legally established in the country. The secretariat may extend such visas for up to five years. As of December, 36 entities with diverse religious affiliations were registered as religious associations, up one from 35 in Because religion and ethnicity are closely linked, it was difficult to categorize the following incidents as based solely on religious identity.
They also said the recently built Orthodox-style monuments honoring Romanian soldiers were placed on top of the graves of predominantly Catholic Hungarian soldiers. On May 16, media outlets posted a video showing a group of Hungarian-speaking persons covering the crosses and monument to Romanian soldiers in black plastic bags.
UDMR condemned the covering of crosses and called it a provocation meant to discredit the Hungarian community in Romania.
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On May 29, the mayor of Sanmartin closed the Valea Uzului military cemetery for 30 days. On June 6, hundreds of persons equipped with loudspeakers, including several ROC priests, arrived at the cemetery to commemorate the Romanian soldiers believed to be buried there.
They were met by approximately members of the Gendarmerie, an agency of the Ministry of the Interior in charge of ensuring public order, who positioned themselves between the ethnic Romanians and hundreds of ethnic Hungarians who would not allow the ethnic Romanians to enter the cemetery. Eventually, some ethnic Romanians forced their way into the cemetery, where they held a ceremony commemorating ethnic Romanian soldiers.
Several observers reported that the commemoration resembled the ritual performed by members of dating online în malawi outlawed Legionnaire Movement to commemorate their deceased. They requested assistance from the State Secretariat for Religious Denominations to establish a cemetery, and from the local governments of Cluj-Napoca and Bucharest to acquire an appropriate lot.
They also continued to criticize the three-tier classification system for religious organizations. All of the claims were submitted before the deadline.
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In 14 cases, the filers withdrew their claims. According to NAPR, religious denominations appealed 63 decisions the SRC submitted to the courts during the year, compared with 53 in The Roman Catholic Church made four appeals 12 in ; the ROC made 24 nine in ; the Greek Catholics made 18 13 in ; the Evangelical Augustinian Church made four two in ; and the Jewish community made 10 12 in Information concerning court decisions on these cases was unavailable.
During the year, NAPR reviewed claims submitted by the Greek Catholic Church, compared with claims inbut it did not restore any property to the Church or grant it compensation in any cases. The Greek Catholic Church continued to report delays on restitution lawsuits. Representatives of the Greek Catholic Church stated there dating femeie de 36 de ani no court decisions on Greek Catholic restitution cases again this year.