Previous recent publications have presented information and analyses concerning the topography of the site and the various types of artefacts Morintz, Kogălniceanu ; Kogălniceanu a; Mărgărit ; Kogălniceanu, Haită ; Kogălniceanu et alii This paper focuses on a specific archaeological feature, namely the Skull Complex.
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Material and method The Skull Complex was only mentioned once, in an annual excavation report, being described briefly and accompanied by mediocre quality photography due to the 1 3. At the moment of publication, the anthropological analysis, had, most probably, not been Figure 1. Location of the Cernavodă — Columbia D site.
Our work on archives and storage facilities led to the identification of supplementary data, of descriptive nature and sketches see transcription of the field notes in Annex 1as well as photographic see Annex 2 2. The skulls were assigned numbers by the excavators from 1 to 6, numbers that we preserved during this reconstruction.
The first stage of the study aimed at summarizing the archive information and elaborating a complete description of the analysed feature in spreadsheet form. The skeletal remains that make up the Skull Complex were studied in the s by a team of anthropologists from Iaşi led by O.
Seven individuals from this feature anthropological ID numbers 8, 9, 10a, 10b, 10c, 36a, 36b3 — see Annex 3 were identified and analysed at that time Necrasov et aliip. Recent advances in anthropological research mainly in morphoscopy, biometrics, palaeopathology and demography and improvements in methods of analysis of commingled human remains, led to our decision to reanalyse the Skull Complex. The osteological sample analysed here comprises 11 fragmentary and fragmented human crania and a further 34 fragmented cranial and postcranial remains three teeth, a mandible fragment, 13 cranial fragments and 17 postcranial fragments.
All skulls were partially reconstructed in the s, except for Dating data de 4th no. A right parietal fragment from ID 36a Skull 4analysed in by O. Necrasov, was found in dating data de 4th same package with the cranial remains of ID b Skull 5.
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This prompted us to restart the analysis from scratch. In consequence, all osteological remains from the Skull Complex were 2 5. The first stage consisted of identifying the remains based on the archaeological and anthropological labels and the markings visible on bones6. This step was followed by anatomical sorting cranial or postcranialdetermination of laterality left or right sidereconstruction of some of the skulls and individual attribution White, Folkens Proco rat 2 dating individuals older than 20 8a, 8b, 9, 10a, 10c, 10d, 10e, 36a, 36b and bthe indicators used to establish age at death were: obliteration of cranial sutures and the presence of some degenerative bone modifications, the degree of wear of the dental crowns; the degenerative modifications on the sacroiliac articular surface, the structural modification of the spongy tissue from the proximal metaphyseal area of the femur and humerus and the presence of some involutive bone modifications.
Sex determination undetermined, female, probable female, probable male, and male was done only for the individuals older than 20, by observing the general shape of the skull, the cranial bone robusticity, the development of the bone relief, the forehead shape, the aspect of the supraorbital margins, the size of the mastoid process, the size of articulations and the development of the muscle insertions Nemeskéri et alii ; Ubelaker dating data de 4th Brothwell ; Buikstra, Ubelaker ; Mays ; Walrath dating data de 4th aliiWhite, Folkens ; Schmitt ; Latham, Finnegan The classification by age groups for adults followed the method recommended by Buikstra and Ubelakerp.
The biometric, conformative and morphoscopic analyses followed the methods recommended by BrocaEickstedtMartin and Saller —Olivier and Buikstra and Ubelakerwhile the evaluation and classification of the absolute measurements and relative indices values was done 6.
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Cernavodă — Columbia D puzzle: the Skull Complex 35 according to the dimorphic scales proposed by Alexeev and Debetz The cranial fragment with traces of burning marked C. The method chosen to remove the chalk layer was ultrasound scaling, a procedure that implied, besides the ultrasonic power action, also the use of a water jet. As a consequence, after cleaning part of the fragment, and because of some previously undetected fissures, the bone fractured, which led us to give up cleaning it completely.
Subsequent analysis of this fragment suggested the following stages. The degree of cremation was recorded according to the colour of the bone wall and of the diploëas well as the texture and the cracking pattern of the bone wall. The biological age of the individual represented by this bone fragment was estimated according to the degree of obliteration of the S4 sagittal sutural segment pars obelicaand the sex according to the thickness of the parietal bone wall, according to the method elaborated by Gejvall and recommended by Wahl The presence or absence of antemortem produced trauma was evaluated according to the methodology proposed by Pope and Smith Archaeological data 3 7.
As the human bones from the Skull Complex suffered secondary postmortem manipulations, being discovered in a commingled state, but also because the osteological inventory was incomplete, palaeodemographic analysis imposed the estimation of the minimum number of individuals MNI — the smallest number of estimated subjects possible to have contributed to the formation of the skeletal assemblage.
Finally, the taphonomic history of these skeletal remains was analysed. After recording the conservation status good, moderate or precarious of the skeletal material Connellp.
The taphonomic indicators were recorded dating data de 4th to the methodology recommended by MorlanDuday et aliiLarsenBuikstra and Ubelakerp. Once the processing of the archaeological information and the anthropological re analysis were finalized, the two sets of data were correlated, before attempting to identify in the field photo the individuals resulting from the new anthropological analysis.
The internal structure of the burial ground.
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This location places the feature in what has been identified within the cemetery as Pit no. Layout Fig. They were assigned numbers in the field, counterclockwise, from 1 to 6.
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Their arrangement, according to the photos, drawing and description is as follows: Western row from north to south : Skull 1: calvaria fallen on the right side facing northwest8. Under the larger piece of the calvaria, other smaller skull fragments were identified.
Cernavodă – Columbia D puzzle : the Skull Complex
No trace of violence on the bones. There was 0.
Human long bone: tibia?